Spring is in the air and that means one thing: archery! It’s time to dust off that old bow and drag your pasty, out-of-shape, winterized carcass outside and do some shooting. Today we’re going to talk about effective range.
What is your “effective range”?
In this post we’ll answer the following questions: At what range are you an effective bowhunter? How do you find out? And why does it matter?
Question #1: What is effective range?
Effective range–or effective distance–is the distance at which you can get all your arrows within a “kill-zone” size area of a target every time.
Question #2: How Do I Figure it Out?
The kill-zone on an average big game animal–like a deer or elk–is a circle 8-10 inches in diameter. This circle encompasses the heart/lungs area known as the vitals. The easiest way to learn your effective range is to shoot four arrows at a paper plate. A standard size paper plate is nine inches, so it makes a perfect kill-zone target. Starting at close range (say 20 yards), shoot four arrows. If all arrows hit within the paper plate, move back ten yards and repeat. Continue doing this until you miss one arrow. WHEN you finally miss a shot, you will know your effective range: It’s the last place you shot where you didn’t miss! So if you miss at 40 yards, then your effective range is 30 yards. At this point, you should begin working on your form and follow-through until you can consistently get every single arrow in the plate at farther distances. Until then, you should never take shots at game over 30 yards.
Question #3: Why is it important?
When you don’t know your effective range, you will end up shooting beyond your abilities and either missing or injuring an animal. This will be a horrible experience for you and the animal, I guarantee it!
Shooting at animals is a lot harder than shooting at a paper plate. There are many psychological factors involved–primarily buck fever–which will cause you to miss. For this reason, you should also practice shooting in adverse conditions such as wind and steep elevation, as well as different body positions like kneeling and crouching–anything that will simulate an actual hunting scenario.
Knowing and sticking to your effective range is the most important first step you should take before going bowhunting. Not only is this a fun exercise, but a valuable measure of your skills. Expanding your effective range will force you to set goals and hone your skills.
Advanced shooters make archery look effortless, but it’s only because they’ve put in countless hours mastering the basics. Over time, the many components of form become one single subconscious step that simply happens in the background of the mind. Here are some key tips for improving your shot.
#1: Keep both eyes open
Keeping both eyes open gives you a better sight picture. This is especially important for traditional bows. Because there aren’t any sights on a traditional bow, your focus should be on the target. To acquire a more accurate target, try keeping both eyes open. I still do this on the compound bow, especially if I’m unsure of the exact distance. Keeping both eyes open gives me more dimensionality to the target. Everything you do all day requires you to keep both eyes open, so why would you close one eye when shooting?
If you close one eye, you are viewing the world in 2D, not 3D. This is not something your brain is used to doing. Because I don’t view the world in two dimensions, I don’t aim at the target in two dimensions either.
#2: Don’t Aim
Proper archery form begins with feet placement, gripping the bow, and drawing the string to your anchor point. It ends with aiming, releasing, and following through. Of all these fundamentals, aiming is the easiest and least important.
In traditional archery, aiming is accomplished by simply pointing the tip of the arrow at a spot on the target. In the time it takes to master the other fundamentals of form, aiming will have become “instinctive.” Therefore, your main focus should really be on consistent form and follow through. If your form is correct, the arrow will eventually find the bull’s-eye.
Note: Correct aiming happens by aligning the string with your right eye (if you’re right-handed). This can only be done by touching the string to the side or tip of your nose. I won’t even loose an arrow unless I feel the string on the side of my nose. And no, it doesn’t hurt at all.
#3: Touch your ear
What am I talking about, ‘touching your ear?’ After each shot your release hand should brush past your face and end up touching your ear. If you make this a habit on every shot, I guarantee your accuracy will improve immediately. That’s because your release hand needs to continue in a straight line backwards from the string. If you allow your release hand to move outwards, upwards, or downwards, then the string will be pulled, or plucked, out of alignment. This will cause the arrow to wobble or deflect side to side.
#4: Don’t flinch
Where the bow goes, the arrow goes. Flinching is a major no-no in proper follow through. Flinching will cause the arrow to miss high or low. The two biggest indicators of flinching are a) you dropping or raising your bow arm at the shot, or b) lifting your head to see where the arrow hits.
Neither your head nor your bow arm should move up or down until the arrow hits the target. It’s normal for the bow to rock forward or back upon release, but your arm should still hold perfectly straight and pointed at the target until the arrow hits. Your head—which is slightly cocked to the side—should remain solid as well.
The best way to avoid flinching is to have a surprise release. A common mistake is anticipating the shot by concentrating on the release hand instead of follow through. All your focus should be on form! As you reach your anchor point, the arrow and string will simply pull free as you relax your release hand. If you concentrate on your release hand, the string will jerk out of your hand and the arrow will miss the target.
#5: Use your back muscles
All the power used to draw the bow comes from your back, not your arms. I often refer to the arms as “deadposts” because they serve one function: holding the bow. The real power comes from your back muscles. This power is simply transferred to the bow and arrow through your arms. Think of you arms as electric power lines which hang loosely in the air. The lines don’t create the tremendous power that surges through them, the power plant does.
The best way to transfer power from your back is to stand as erect as possible and concentrate on squeeze your shoulder blades together. Upon release, your shoulder blades will continue pulling together—almost touching—while your arms pull away from each other in opposite directions. This is the only way to load the bow with the necessary power for proper shot execution.
#6: Don’t pinch the string (Doesn’t apply to compound bows.)
In beginning archery the most common problem is simply keeping the arrow from falling off the shelf/arrow rest. At least 50% of my students have a hard time getting the arrow to stay on the bow long enough to shoot.
This is caused by over-gripping or pinching the string. The string is gripped with three fingers: index, middle, and ring. As you draw the bow, the fingers pinch tighter together. If they pinch too much, it puts pressure on the nock and causes the arrow to pull off the shelf. To keep this from happening, simply leave a slight, eighth-inch gap between your fingers as you draw the bow. This problem will fix itself rather quickly with a little practice. As frustrating as it might be at first, your hand will eventually figure out how to keep the arrow on the shelf.
#7: Missing left and right
Missing left or right is caused by torquing, or over-gripping, the bow with your bow arm. I call it the “death grip.” People death-grip the bow because they feel like they need to control the tremendous energy they’ve loaded into the bow at full draw. Heavy bows have so much power that we think they might fly back into our face if we don’t grasp them tightly. But if you grip the bow too tightly, you’ll force the bow left or right, and where the bow goes, the arrow goes.
In reality, all that force you’re holding simply leaves with the arrow and the bow falls limply into your hand. To avoid torquing the bow, you must let the bow sit loosely in your palm while resting your fingertips lightly on the front of the grip. This will allow the bow to settle into its natural alignment.
Over time, anyone can master the art of archery. Remember, hitting the bulls-eye is a long-term goal. The short-term goal should be flawless execution. I promise you, hitting the bullseye will come with time. My best students—the ones I call Naturals—are the ones that implement the basics quickly and move on to the easiest step: aiming.
Archery is a valuable and rewarding skill. Most importantly, it’s a ton of fun! Don’t get discouraged. If you have any questions at all, please leave a comment and I will respond quickly.